endless universe
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Colliding Branes and the Cyclic Universe (version 2):
(please wait for animation to download)



Similar to version 1 but colorfully emphasizing how the wrinkles produced by quantum fluctuations cause the collisions to occur at slightly different times at different places, resulting in temperature variations after the bang like those observed by cosmologists in the cosmic background radiation.

As in version 1, the animation shows the sequence of events during each cycle: (1) big bang (the collision between branes); (2) creation of matter and radiation and the bouncing apart of the branes; (3) expansion and cooling of the branes leading to the creation of new galaxies; (4) the taking over by dark energy that rapidly expands the branes and dilutes the matter and radiation; (5) the flattening and smoothing of the branes due to dark energy; (6) the gradual drawing together of the branes by an interbrane force; (7) the creation of wrinkles in the branes due to quantum fluctuations; (8) a new collision.