endless universe
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Colliding Branes and the Cyclic Universe (version 1):
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In the animation above, our three-dimensional world (which string theorists call a "brane," short for membrane) is represented as a two-dimensional sheet, separated by a short distance along an extra-dimension from a second brane. (Although the braneworlds extend infinitely, here only a finite piece of each brane is shown) The animation then shows the sequence of events during each cycle: (1) big bang (the collision between branes); (2) creation of matter and radiation and the bouncing apart of the branes; (3) expansion and cooling of the branes leading to the creation of new galaxies; (4) the taking over by dark energy that rapidly expands the branes and dilutes the matter and radiation; (5) the flattening and smoothing of the branes due to dark energy; (6) the gradual drawing together of the branes by an interbrane force; (7) the creation of wrinkles in the branes due to quantum fluctuations; (8) a new collision.